Here are the main locations that are relevant to the Old Testament.
A. The Garden of Eden
The exact location of the Garden of Eden, where everything began, is impossible to pinpoint. However, it was near the convergence of four rivers, two of which were the Tigris and Euphrates.
This smallish piece of land, which lies between the Mediterranean coast and the Sea of Galilee-Jordan River-Dead Sea,changes names throughout the Old Testament. In Genesis it is called Canaan. After the Hebrew people establish themselves in the land in the Book of Joshua, it becomes known as Israel. Thirteen hundred years later, at the beginning of the New Testament, it is called Palestine.
Located just off the northwestern shoulder of the Dead Sea, this city, nestled in the central mountains of Israel, is so central to the story of the Old Testament that it must be singled out and identified. It is the capital of the nation of Israel.
The grande dame of ancient civilization, Egypt plays a central role in the history of the Old Testament.
Located at the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates, this great world power is notable in the Old Testament for conquering the Northern Kingdom of Israel and dispersing her people to the four winds.
Another gigantic historical world power, this fabulous, albeit short-lived, nation conquered Assyria. It also conquered the Southern Kingdom of Judah 136 years after Assyria conquered the Northern Kingdom of Israel. It is found in Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates. (Mesopotamia means ‘in the middle of’ [meso]—’rivers’ [potamus].)
The final historical superpower of the Old Testament is located at the north bank of the Persian Gulf. Persia comes into play by conquering Babylonia and by allowing the Hebrews to return from captivity in Babylonia to rebuild the city of Jerusalem and reinstate temple worship.
If these historical notes are foreign to you, don’t worry about it now. Instead, content yourself with learning these locations so that,as the story unfolds, the names of these locations will mean something to you.
Taken from Max Anders’ book 30 Days to Understanding the Bible.